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Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Get the basic facts about what it takes for a young child to learn to read, best practices in teaching reading, the importance of oral language in literacy development, why so many children struggle, and more in this overview.

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Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Too many American children don't read well

Thirty-three percent of American fourth graders read below the "basic" level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress reading test. The "basic" level is defined as "partial mastery of the prerequisite knowledge and skills that are fundamental for proficient work at each grade." (NAEP Reading Report Card)

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

An achievement gap exists

Many students enter kindergarten performing below their peers and remain behind as they move through the grades. Differences in language, exposure to print and background experiences multiply as students confront more challenging reading material in the upper grades. There is a well-established correlation between prior knowledge and reading comprehension: students who have it, get it. Students who don't, don't. The differences are quantifiable as early as age 3, according to the landmark study by Hart and Risley.

For some subgroups of students, the reading failure rate is even higher than their same-age peers: 52% of black students, 51% of Hispanic students, and 49% of students in poverty all scored "Below Basic" on the NAEP assessment. High-need students have chronic difficulty in the classroom, and teachers must be prepared to meet the challenges they face.

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Learning to read is complex

Reading is a complex process that draws upon many skills that need to be developed at the same time. Reading expert Marilyn Adams compares the operation of the reading system to that of a car. Unlike drivers, though, readers also need to:

  • Build the car (develop the mechanical systems for identifying words)
  • Maintain the car (fuel it with print, fix up problems along the way, and make sure it runs smoothly)
  • Drive the car (which requires us to be motivated, strategic, and mindful of the route we're taking)

Cars are built by assembling the parts separately and fastening them together. In contrast, the parts of the reading system must grow together. The ultimate goal of reading is to make meaning from print, and a vehicle in good working order is required to help us reach that goal.

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Teachers should teach with the end goal in mind

Because learning to read is complex, the most accomplished teachers learn to teach with the end goal of readers and learners in mind. Teachers working with young children learn to balance the various components of reading, including phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension in their every day teaching. The very best teachers integrate the components while fostering a love of books, words, and stories.

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Kids who struggle usually have problems sounding out words

Difficulties in decoding and word recognition are at the core of most reading difficulties. Poor readers have difficulty understanding that sounds in words are linked to certain letters and letter patterns. This is called the "alphabetic principle." The reason many poor readers don't attain the alphabetic principle is because they haven’t developed phonemic awareness — being aware that words are made up of speech sounds, or phonemes. When word recognition isn't automatic, reading isn't fluent, and comprehension suffers.

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

What happens before school matters a lot

What preschoolers know before they enter school is strongly related to how easily they learn to read in first grade. Three predictors of reading achievement that children learn before they get to school are:

  • The ability to recognize and name letters of the alphabet
  • General knowledge about print (understanding, for example, which is the front of the book and which is the back and how to turn the pages of a book)
  • Awareness of phonemes (the sounds in words)

Reading aloud together builds these knowledge and skills. As a result, reading aloud with children is the single most important activity for parents and caregivers to do to prepare children to learn to read.

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Learning to read is closely tied to learning to talk and listen

Families and caregivers need to talk and listen to young children in order to help them learn a lot of the skills they will need for reading. When a child says "cook" and her father says, "Would you like a cookie?" he is building her knowledge of vocabulary, sentence structure, syntax, and purposes for communication — all of which will help her become a reader in later years.

When a caregiver sings rhymes and plays word games with the children she cares for, she is helping them recognize the sounds in words (phonemic awareness). Children with language, hearing, or speech problems need to be identified early so they can receive the help they need to prevent later reading difficulties.

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Without help, struggling readers continue to struggle

Many children learn to read by first grade regardless of the type of instruction they receive. The children who don't learn, however, don't seem able to catch up on their own. More than 88 percent of children who have difficulty reading at the end of first grade display similar difficulties at the end of fourth grade. And three-quarters of students who are poor readers in third grade will remain poor readers in high school. These facts highlight the importance of providing a strong foundation for reading birth through age five.

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

With help, struggling readers can succeed

For 85 to 90 percent of poor readers, prevention and early intervention programs can increase reading skills to average reading levels. These programs, however, need to combine instruction in phoneme awareness, phonics, spelling, reading fluency, and reading comprehension strategies, and must be provided by well-trained teachers.

As many as two-thirds of reading disabled children can become average or above-average readers if they are identified early and taught appropriately. These facts underscore the value of having a highly trained teacher in every classroom.

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

Teaching kids to read is a team effort

Parents, teachers, caregivers, and members of the community must recognize the important role they can play in helping children learn to read. The research shows that what families do makes a difference, what teachers do makes a difference, and what community programs do makes a difference. It's time for all those who work with children to work together to ensure that every child learns to read. It is our shared responsibility.

Top 10 Things You Should Know About Reading

All About Reading
  • Top 10 things about reading
  • A nation of struggling readers
  • An achievement gap exists
  • Learning to read is complex
  • A balanced approach to literacy
  • Phonemic awareness is key
  • Preschool matters
  • Talking and listening
  • Catch struggling readers early
  • Struggling readers can succeed
  • Team effort
  • More about teaching reading
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1. Too many American children don't read well

Thirty-three percent of American fourth graders read below the "basic" level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress reading test. The "basic" level is defined as "partial mastery of the prerequisite knowledge and skills that are fundamental for proficient work at
each grade." (NAEP Reading Report Card)

2. An achievement gaps exists

Many students enter kindergarten performing below their peers and remain behind as they move through the grades. Differences in language, exposure to print and background experiences multiply as students confront more challenging reading material in the upper grades. There is a well-established correlation between prior knowledge and reading comprehension: students who have it, get it. Students who don't, don't. The differences are quantifiable as early as age 3 (Hart & Risley, 2003). For some subgroups of students, the reading failure rate is even higher than their same-age peers: 52% of black students, 51% of Hispanic students, and 49% of students in poverty all scored Below Basic on the NAEP assessment. High-need students have chronic difficulty in the classroom, and teachers must be prepared to meet the challenges they face.

3. Learning to read is complex

Reading is a complex process that draws upon many skills that need to be developed at the same time. Marilyn Adams (1990) compares the operation of the reading system to the operation of a car. Unlike drivers, though, readers also need to:

  • Build the car (develop the mechanical systems for identifying words)
  • Maintain the car (fuel it with print, fix up problems along the way, and make sure it runs smoothly)
  • And, most importantly, drive the car (which requires us to be motivated, strategic, and mindful of the route we're taking)

Cars are built by assembling the parts separately and fastening them together. "In contrast, the parts of the reading system are not discrete. We cannot proceed by completing each individual sub-system and then fastening it to one another. Rather, the parts of the reading system must grow together. They must grow to one another and from one another."(Adams et al., 1990, pp.20-21).

The ultimate goal of reading is to make meaning from print, and a vehicle in good working order is required to help us reach that goal.

4. Teachers should teach with the end goal in mind

Because learning to read is complex, the most accomplished teachers learn to teach with the end goal of readers and learners in mind. Teachers working with young children learn to balance the various components of reading, including phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension in their every day teaching. The very best teachers integrate the components while fostering a love of books, words, and stories.

5. Kids who struggle usually have problems sounding out words

Difficulties in decoding and word recognition are at the core of most reading difficulties. Poor readers have difficulty understanding that sounds in words are linked to certain letters and letter patterns. This is called the "alphabetic principle."

The reason many poor readers don't attain the alphabetic principle is because they haven't developed phonemic awareness — being aware that words are made up of speech sounds, or phonemes (Lyon, 1997). When word recognition isn't automatic, reading isn't fluent, and comprehension suffers.

6. What happens before school matters a lot

What preschoolers know before they enter school is strongly related to how easily they learn to read in first grade. Three predictors of reading achievement that children learn before they get to school are:

  • The ability to recognize and name letters of the alphabet
  • General knowledge about print (understanding, for example, which is the front of the book and which is the back and how to turn the pages of a book)
  • Awareness of phonemes (the sounds in words)

Reading aloud together builds these knowledge and skills. As a result, reading aloud with children is the single most important activity for parents and caregivers to do to prepare children to learn to read. (Adams, 1990).

7. Learning to read is closely tied to learning to talk and listen

Families and caregivers need to talk and listen to young children in order to help them learn a lot of the skills they will need for reading. When a child says "cook" and her father says, "Would you like a cookie?" he is building her knowledge of vocabulary, sentence structure, syntax, and purposes for communication — all of which will help her become a reader in later years. When a caregiver sings rhymes and plays word games with the children she cares for, she is helping them recognize the sounds in words (phonemic awareness). Children with language, hearing, or speech problems need to be identified early so they can receive the help they need to prevent later reading difficulties.

8. Without help, struggling readers continue to struggle

Many children learn to read by first grade regardless of the type of instruction they receive. The children who don't learn, however, don't seem able to catch up on their own.

More than 88 percent of children who have difficulty reading at the end of first grade display similar difficulties at the end of fourth grade (Juel, 1988). And three-quarters of students who are poor readers in third grade will remain poor readers in high school (Shaywitz et al., 1997). These facts highlight the importance of providing a strong foundation for reading birth through age five.

9. With help, struggling readers can succeed

For 85 to 90 percent of poor readers, prevention and early intervention programs can increase reading skills to average reading levels. These programs, however, need to combine instruction in phoneme awareness, phonics, spelling, reading fluency, and reading comprehension strategies, and must be provided by well-trained teachers (Lyon, 1997).

As many as two-thirds of reading disabled children can become average or above-average readers if they are identified early and taught appropriately (Vellutino et al., 1996; Fletcher & Lyon, 1998). These facts underscore the value of having a highly trained teacher in every classroom.

10. Teaching kids to read is a team effort

Parents, teachers, caregivers, and members of the community must recognize the important role they can play in helping children learn to read. The research shows that what families do makes a difference, what teachers do makes a difference, and what community programs do makes a difference. It's time for all those who work with children to work together to ensure that every child learns to read. It is our shared responsibility.

References

Click the "References" link above to hide these references.

Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning Reading Instruction in the United States. ERIC Digest.

Adams, M. J. et al. (1990). Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning about Print. A Summary. Champaign, IL: Center for the Study of Reading.

Fletcher, J.M. & Lyon, G.R. (1998). Reading: A Research-Based Approach. In What's Gone Wrong in America's Classrooms, ed. W.M. Evers, 49-90. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press.

Hart, B. & Risley, T. (2003). The Early Catastrophe: The 30 Million Word Gap. American Educator, 27, 4-9.

Juel, C. (1988). Learning to Read and Write: A Longitudinal Study of Fifty-four Children from First through Fourth Grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80:437-447.

Lyon, G. R. (July 10, 1997). Report on Learning Disabilities Research, Congressional testimony.

NAEP 2009 Reading Report Card for the States (2009). U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics.

Shaywitz, B.A., et al. (1997). The Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention: Longitudinal and Neurobiological Studies. Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 8:21-30.

Vellutino, F.R., Scanlon, D.M., Sipay, H., & Denckla M. (1996). Cognitive Profiles of Difficult-to-remediate and Readily Remediated Poor Readers: Early Intervention as a Vehicle for Distinguishing between Cognitive and Experiential Deficits as Basic Causes of Specific Reading Disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88:601-636.

Reading Rockets (2011)

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Comments

I found this post to be very informative and helpful in identifying the top 10 reasons why students struggle with reading. I am currently an adult education specialist and find it extremely difficult in finding helpful material to assist tutors in working with students. Although this is targeted for middle school learners ( 3rd and 4th grade) I think the tools and and helpful hints in working with students who struggle with reading can apply to learners of all levels.

What happens before school is extremely important in recognizing the learning gap from my experience. Learners who may not grasp material as easily as others can get frustrated and overlooked by teachers in some cases. They may not attend school as ofter and begin to fall further behind. If this is a trend among low level readers, this can ultimately affect them in adulthood which adds in a lot of other confounding factors that may begin to affect their learning capacity.

The information is very useful and helpful. I will use it to improve my pupils reading skill. Thank you so much.

I find this information very interesting and want to dig into certain aspects of it a bit more. Specifically, the rates of non-white children that have reading disabilities. I can understand if a child is from a home that primarily speaks a different language than english, they would have a harder time grasping english reading and catching on to the "alphabetic principle." Also, if I were to make a guess or assumption about children in poverty, I would think they or their parents don't have access to the resources to learn skills necessary for reading. However, what is the theory behind the high percentage of black students? Is there an economic factor associated with this statistic kris it across all levels of income?

I'm also curious about the Hispanic children statistics. Are these based on the ability to read english books and exercises? Are they are able to meet reading requirements if they read books and lessons in their native language? I understand that tests in American schools are given in english and children attending class in America need to be fluent in english but, at such a young age, is this an unfair requirement. Should requirements be adjusted for the younger grades and gradually meet American requirements as they age older?

I will say that this article drove home an assumption I already had but, made very clear for me - it is apparent that reading is not just a job left to teachers and schools. Parents need to plant the seed before their child enters school and they have to take an interest in ensuring their child is ready. It's a team effort!

I think that also parents should be more involved in helping their children to read. By introducing the habit of reading from the very young age. Modeling is the key. Most parents expects that teachers do their job or are waiting for specialist teachers to help their children. Many countries do not offer those services so Parents have to do that job. I may be wrong but that is a personal opinion from an inmigrant. America is great offering great support to children but parents need to do their part in the process

As a retired classroom teacher and currently a Parenting Educator your website and information is to the point and extremely beneficial to the population I serve.

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